this is what detectors find most of the time. Defensive mined
areas around villages get used as rubbish dumps.
there are fragments associated with conflict.
is a typical scrap-pit from one deminer's lane in the hills
is a scrap-pit for a platoon clearing a mined area in Mozambique.
The mines included fragmentation mines.
onto the real targets - the PMA-2
is a notoriously hard mine to detect. It is common throughout
the Balkans, but is rarely found anywhere else in the world.
is a section through the PMA-2 with the only metal part being
the aluminium detonator shell. The detonator size is 6mm x approximately
This is the R2M2, which shares its
fuze with the R2M1, the RAP "carrot" mine and the SA No8 AT
blast mine - so sharing the same metal signature. It is common
throughout Southern Africa.
is the R2M2 spring, pin and ball bearings. The steel used for
the spring and ball bearings is often surgical quality stainless.
This means that it is often only the detonators that can be
R2M2 detonator size is shown above.
a Type 72a - the minimum metal
mine that is most widespread in use - although not necessarily
the most common in any one country. It has been recorded in
Afghanistan, Cambodia, throughout Southern Africa, Iraq, etc
- but not in the Balkans.
are the metal parts from a Type72a. There is a two-part detonator,
a pin, and a thin "arming" spring.
is not only minimum metal content that causes problem. Mines
with plenty of metal that are deep or heavily corroded can be
really difficult to detect.
is the GYATA-64 - a Hungarian mine
that is common in Southern Mozambique and Lebanon.
is a lot of metal in this mine - but when rusty, it can be very
hard to detect.
is probably the most common mine in the world,
the Type 72a, it has been used in most theatres except the Balkans.
The metal content of a PMN is less than that in a Gyata-64 -
but the large ring holding the rubber top in place makes it
easy to detect - as long as the ring is intact.
is not just the metal bulk that makes detection easy - but its
orientation and shape.
a detector can find that range of mines at a depth of 13cm (to
the top of the mine) in electromagnetic and reactive soils,
it is doing very well. If it could find them at 30cm -
it would lead the field.